Diamonds had been fashioned greater than 300 million years in the past. Kimberlite magma fashioned at a depth of 20 or 25 km. Magma progressively rises alongside faults within the crust and when the higher layer can now not maintain again the strain of the magma, an eruption happens. The primary such “pipes” had been present in Kimberley inSouth Africa and from there got here the title. Within the mid 50s wealthy major diamond deposits had been found in Yakutia. Right here the diamonds had been present in about 1500 kimberlite pipes.
The Russian firm “ALROSA” produces 99% of diamonds in Russia and greater than 25% of the diamonds on this planet .
The kimberlite pipe “Mir” (Peace) is an indigenous diamond mine that had been opened in 1955. The sphere was developed initially at Mirny the place an open pit mine and processing plant had been created. The quarry has a depth of 525 m and a diameter of 1.2 km, so it is among the largest on this planet. Diamondiferous kimberlite ore open pit mining ceased in June 2001. Since 2009, mining diamond ore is completed within the “Mir” underground mine.
Metropolis of Mirny – the diamond “capital” of Russia, positioned in Yakutia. It’s 1200 km from Yakutsk.
The inhabitants is 35000 folks.
Lenin’s Sq. is the middle of the town.
The headquarters of Russia’s largest diamond firm “ALROSA” can be located in Mirny.
The corporate began with a belief referred to as “Yakutalmaz”, fashioned for the event of indigenous diamond deposits in Yakutia within the early Nineteen Fifties.
The quarry is positioned near Mirny.
Diamonds value U.S.$17 billion had been extracted from the quarry between 1957 and 2001.
The mine employs about 760 folks.
The corporate operates seven days per week. Mining operations run over 3 shifts, every shift lasts 7 hours.
9 tunnelling machines are concerned in working the mine (Sandvik MR 620 and MR360).
And eight Scooptrams.
The size of the spine conveyor belt is 1200 meters.
The common diamond content material is greater than 3 carats per tonne.
The mine has a water assortment system: at first groundwater is collected in particular lagoons, after which routed to the -310 meters mark by the pumps, after which lastly pumped to the floor.
That is the underground work in one other drive, referred to as “Worldwide” (“Inter”).
It’s positioned 16 km from Mirny. Diamond mining by the open lower methodology began right here in 1971, and in 1980, when the quarry reached a depth of 284 m, it was mothballed.
The “Worldwide” has the richest diamond content material – greater than 8 carats per tonne.
The shaft depth is 1065 meters. The drive reaches to a size of 1220 meters.
The size of all of the workings right here is greater than 40 km.
The chopping machine loosens the ore by way of tooth put in on the curler cutter.
Subsequent comes it’s loading on Scooptrams.
On common, one ton of “Inter’s” rock incorporates 8.53 carats of diamonds.
The mine operates 24 hours a day, 7 days per week. Solely two holidays are celebrating there – New 12 months and Miner’s day.
Nyurbinsk GOK was established in March of 2000 to discover the Nakyn ore area (Yakutia) for kimberlite pipes “Nyurbinskaya” and “Botuobinskaya”, in addition to adjoining placers. The mine is an open lower mine.
On July 1, 2013, the depth of the quarry “Nyurbinsk” was 255 meters.
Open pit mining can be practiced till a depth of 450 meters (to the extent of -200 meters above sea stage) is reached. There’s a potential to achieve -320 meters.
To move the ore and the overburden dump heavy-duty autos are used – from 40 to 136 tons.
The common content material of diamonds within the ore – 4.25 carats per tonne.
There are 300-400 carats behind the truck.
The ore is delivered to the crusher.
The the stones are separated into teams.
X-ray separators. These separators are utilizing the property of diamonds to glow in X-rays. The fabric strikes alongside the chute and is irradiated with X-rays. Whereas within the radiation zone, a diamond glows. After the flash a particular gadget captures the glow and sends a sign to close off the gadget.
There are not any preferrred or equivalent diamonds in nature, so their classification entails sorting.
16 sizes x 10 grades of 5 qualities x 10 colours = 8000 positions.
The small ones are sorted by weighing machines. Giant diamonds are sorted by folks.
1 carat – 0.2 grams (200 mg)
Stones weighing greater than 50 carats are discovered only some occasions a month.
The world’s largest diamond “Cullinan” weighs 621 grams and it’s value is about 200 billion rubles.
The most important diamond of Yakutsk – “XXII Congress of the Communist Social gathering” weighs 342 carats (over 68 grams).
In 2013, the “ALROSA” group reserves had been about 608 million carats.
Thus, the corporate is offered by the mineral useful resource base for 30 years.