Mom tongue or first language is maybe probably the most favourite factor for any particular person. The query of language has resulted into many conflicts and discontentment. The prime instance of such discontentment is the Language Motion of 1952 in Bangladesh. However we can’t reside in isolation. We’ve to keep up a correspondence with the audio system of different languages. Bangladesh is taken into account to be a monolingual nation through which greater than 98% of the inhabitants is audio system of Bangla language. Nevertheless, there are greater than ten languages in such a small nation like Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain, Tipra- are simply a few of the different languages current in Bangladesh.
The fascinating factor is that Urdu is a Indo-European language however written in Arabic script, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language household whereas Chakma belongs to the Chinese language-Barmese language group. So, though Bangladesh is commonly portrayed as a rustic of linguistic unity based mostly on Bangla language in actuality it has notable linguistic range. To speak with the audio system of different languages we both must know their language or talk in a Lingua-Franca that’s understandable to each of us.
At this time, the world has change into a worldwide village. Because of the development of communication system and know-how. Each nation depends on others for commerce and commerce, training, politics and many others. Consequently, we have now to consistently talk with different nations and audio system of different languages. Third world nations like Bangladesh need to rely on overseas assist as a result of they don’t seem to be self-sufficient. Consequently, many foreigners come to Bangladesh. A 3rd issue is the issue of faith. The sacred language of the Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for the Buddhists and Latin for the Christians.
All these components remind us the need for studying different language(s) along with our mom tongue. In accordance with this actuality many nations of the world have adopted a European language as second language which is commonly utilized in training, regulation court docket, financial actions and authorities works. These languages have more often than not official standing within the structure of these nations. Most of the circumstances the nations have adopted the language of their previous colonial rulers because the second language. Generally these languages are additionally known as official language. In lots of African nations we will see this image. However, some European languages have change into essential on the earth for literary and financial functions. For instance, German and French are thought-about to be essential languages of the world as a result of each of them have influential literature and financial points related to them.
For instance, many individuals in our nation have an interest to be taught French as a result of it might assist them to get UN jobs and jobs in Multinational corporations. One other engaging motivation for studying French in Bangladesh is that it might assist us to immigrate to Canada as ability in French language provides an individual some additional factors within the level system of Canadian immigration.
The title of my analysis is “Standing of English in Bangladesh: Second language or overseas language?” I’ve chosen this subject as a result of from sociolinguistic perspective the standing of English is a really fascinating one. On the one hand English language is dominantly current in each aspect of our nationwide life whereas then again in our structure it’s clearly declared that the language of the nation is Bangla. In actual fact, nothing is claimed in regards to the standing of English language in our structure. On one hand, financial actions within the non-public corporations are carried out in English whereas there’s a authorities regulation (Bangla procholon ain1987) that authorities places of work should use Bangla of their official works. So from the federal government perspective Bangla is the national- official language of Bangladesh and English is crucial overseas language. However in actuality English is the second language of the nation and in lots of locations English is extra essential than Bangla in Bangladesh.
A second language is any language aside from the primary, or native, language discovered; it’s sometimes used due to geographical or social causes. The time period is to be distinguished from overseas language; linguist Eric Lenneberg makes use of second language in his crucial interval speculation to imply a language consciously discovered or utilized by its speaker after puberty. Normally, folks by no means obtain the identical stage of fluency and comprehension of their second languages as of their first language.
Traditionally in Europe, probably the most broadly used second language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It was utilized by the Church; by the Legislation (because it nonetheless is immediately); in Medication (beginning a lot later); Horticulture and organic classification of vegetation, animals, fruits, nuts, and many others.
Latin was used a lot throughout Europe that it was known as the vulgar (or widespread tongue); that is why the Latin model of the Bible is known as the Vulgate.
These days, English is taken into account the world’s most widespread second language; it’s utilized in areas as numerous because the web, tv and radio, and worldwide aviation.
The success of English all through the world stems from two main causes: the far reaching affect of the British Empire, and the twentieth century (and persevering with) dominance of the US within the fields of enterprise and leisure.
French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of time period) in Europe. In historical past, each England and France had been dominated by a single crown – the language utilized by the royal court docket was French (English was thought-about “the peasant’s language”). Afterwards, as was the case with English, the French empire unfold its language via colonization. French continues to be one of many world’s most generally spoken languages. (Supply: Wikipedia)
If we take a look at the definition of second language then we will simply say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It’s broadly utilized in many elements of our nationwide life. Many individuals watch English tv channels and in addition use Web. The scholars have to review it for twelve years and those that need to be a part of civil service by attending BCS examination even have to sit down for English examination. The one factor that’s lacking from the above definition is the truth that aside from formal events nobody speaks in English in Bangladesh. It isn’t the language utilized in house amongst members of the family and amongst mates in casual dialog.
A overseas language is a language not spoken by the indigenous folks of a sure place: for instance, English is a overseas language in Japan. Additionally it is a language not spoken within the native nation of the particular person referred to, i.e. an English speaker residing in Japan can say that Japanese is a overseas language to her or him.
Some youngsters be taught a couple of language from start or from a really younger age: they’re bilingual. These youngsters will be stated to have two mom tongues: neither language is overseas to that youngster, even when one language is a overseas language for the overwhelming majority of individuals within the kid’s start nation. For instance, a baby studying English from her English mom in Japan can communicate each English and Japanese, however neither is a overseas language to her. (Supply- Wikipedia)
From the above definition, it’s seen that overseas language refers to a language that isn’t native to an individual. From this perspective English will be thought-about as a overseas language in Bangladesh since it’s not native in our nation. Hardly any Bangladeshi particular person speaks in English though a lot of them use it in training and enterprise.
An official language is one thing that’s given a singular standing within the nations, states, and different territories. It’s sometimes the language utilized in a nation’s legislative our bodies, although the regulation in many countries requires that authorities paperwork be produced in different languages as effectively.
Formally acknowledged minority languages are sometimes mistaken for official languages. Nevertheless, a language formally acknowledged by a state, taught in colleges, and utilized in official communication isn’t essentially an official language. For instance, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are solely formally acknowledged minority languages, not official languages within the strict sense.
Half of the nations on the earth have official languages. Some have just one official language, resembling Albania, France, or Lithuania, even though in all these nations there are different native languages spoken as effectively. Some have a couple of official language, resembling Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa, and Switzerland.
In some nations, resembling Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there may be an official language for the nation, however different languages are co-official in some essential areas. Some nations, resembling Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu, and the US don’t have any official languages.
The official languages of some former colonies, sometimes French or English, usually are not the nationwide languages or probably the most broadly spoken language.
In distinction, as a consequence of nationalism, Irish is the “nationwide language” of the Republic of Eire and its first official language, though it’s spoken by solely a small fraction of its folks. English, which is spoken by the bulk, is described solely because the second official language (Structure of Eire, Article 8).
In some nations, the problem of which language is for use in what context is a serious political situation.(Supply-Wikipedia)
From the above definition, it’s seen that the notion of official language is sophisticated. In accordance with our structure English can’t be termed because the official language of Bangladesh because it has no standing in our structure. The one language that’s talked about in our structure is Bangla. However English is allowed in our parliament and lots of authorities occasions. For instance, when there’s a authorities occasion through which some foreigners attend then in lots of circumstances the audio system use English language. Many essential authorities paperwork are written each in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are saved into these two languages. When a authorities physique organizes a good then typically the memento is revealed in English.
In regards to the language of the nation the Bangladeshi structure clearly states:
“The state language.
The state language of the Republic is [Bangla].”
Within the structure nothing is talked about in regards to the standing of English. English isn’t talked about as a second language or official language. So if we take the standing of English in our structure then we can not declare that English is a Second language or Official Language in Bangladesh.
English in Legislation court docket in Bangladesh:
After Independence the federal government took the initiative to implement Bangla language in regulation court docket. Consequently, now the decrease courts perform their actions in Bangla however English is but very influential in Excessive Courtroom and Supreme Courtroom. If a lawyer desires to apply in Supreme court docket then he will need to have a very good command over English language. Most of the judges nonetheless give their verdicts in English language. It appears that evidently this pattern of utilizing English will stay for the forcible future.
English in Training sector in Bangladesh:
Formal and institutionalized training system began in Bangladesh throughout the British rule. At the moment Bangladesh was a part of British India. There was a debate in regards to the medium of training. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium needs to be English somewhat than Sanskrit or Persian. In the course of the British interval the medium of training was largely in English. Calcutta College took an initiative in 1935 to introduce Bangla as a medium of training together with English. In Bangladesh using Bangla in school stage began within the Sixties. Now college students can reply within the examinations in Bangla or English. Within the school stage and college stage after 1971 the federal government tried to patronize Bangla and implement it by changing English within the training sector however this didn’t got here into actuality due to some fundamental issues. The primary drawback is that there have been not sufficient books of any discipline in Bangla language. This drawback is extra acute in science and know-how. For instance, there are virtually no books in Bangla about pc know-how that can be utilized as a reference guide within the College stage.
Truly there are three sorts of training methods in our country- Bangla medium, English medium, and Madrasa system. Bangla medium colleges will be divided into two sections- authorities colleges, and kindergarten colleges. Within the kindergarten colleges extra emphasis is given on English language than authorities colleges. Among the well-known kindergarten colleges of Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower, and so forth. Though these colleges belong to Bangla medium the scholars have to review 3-4 English books like: Radiant Approach, Energetic English, Desk Work, Basic English, Brighter Grammar, and so forth. However within the authorities colleges there may be primarily one English guide (English for At this time) which is revealed by Bangladesh Textual content E book Board. The English medium colleges don’t observe Bangladeshi training system and are below the supervision of British Council. The medium of instruction in these colleges is English and most of the college students of English medium are even very weak in Bangla language. There are two sorts of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrassas usually are not acknowledged by the federal government and don’t obtain any help from the federal government. On this Madrassas emphasis is given on studying Arabic, Persian, and Urdu whereas Bangla and English are uncared for. However in Dakhil Madrassas emphasis is principally given on Arabic and Bangla and English usually are not a lot uncared for.
So we will clearly see that the distinction in training system in Bangladesh is solely based mostly on the distinction within the medium of training. Though Bangla is the Nationwide-Official language of Bangladesh it’s the English medium training institutes who get extra money. The rise of personal universities has solely elevated the standing and significance of English language in Bangladesh. There at the moment are greater than 50 non-public Universities in Bangladesh and the medium of training in all of them is English. These universities cost 2 lakh to five lakh taka for Bachelor course. If the medium of training was in Bangla then hardly any scholar or dad and mom would get to pay such large cash for the training in non-public universities.
From the above dialogue it’s clear that in our normal training system English has equal if no more significance than Bangla. In our training system English is admittedly the Second language as all the scholars have to review it as a obligatory topic for twelve years.
English and Administration:
In the course of the language motion the folks of Bangladesh had been afraid that if Urdu was established because the State Language of Pakistan then all the federal government actions will likely be carried out in Urdu and our folks will endure. Because of the language motion, the Pakistani Regime saved on finishing up authorities actions in English language. After Bangladesh grew to become unbiased the federal government of Awami League determined to interchange English with Bangla in administrative works however after the loss of life of Sheikh Mujib this course of got here to a halt and English continued to stay because the dominant language. It was throughout the rule of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was created and applied. From that point English began to lose its significance in administration. Nevertheless, it needs to be talked about that each one the worldwide communication of Bangladesh authorities is carried out via English.
English in Financial actions:
The financial system of Bangladesh depends on overseas aids and export of some widespread gadgets like prepared made clothes, jute, tea, fish and many others and in addition we import lots of issues. Bangladesh isn’t independent economically. Buying and selling is extra well-liked than manufacturing. Buying and selling requires fixed communication with overseas corporations. Most of the corporations who’re concerned in buying and selling have to make use of English in coping with foreigners. Suppose, an organization is doing buying and selling with China which isn’t an English talking nation. Then the corporate has to contact the Chinese language firm in English. If we take a look at the commercials of the non-public sector jobs then we will simply discover that many of the job commercials are posted in English. Even many of the non-public sector job commercials which might be posted in Bengali newspapers are posted in English. Nearly all of the non-public jobs state that the candidates will need to have good proficiency in English language. Nearly all the general public restricted corporations publish their annual experiences in English. A few of these corporations produce a Bangla model of their annual report however the emphasis is all the time on English. So it’s clear that English is the dominant language in our financial actions.
Comparability of English with Arabic, Sanskrit, and Pali in Bangladesh:
Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the non secular languages of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists respectively. Even the uneducated folks attempt to be taught these languages as they’re thought-about to be holy. If we examine the educational of English with these languages then we will see that English is given extra significance. For instance, the tutoring payment of a English teaching middle is far increased than that of an Arabic teaching centre. English non-public tutors get 4-5 instances extra money than Arabic non-public tutors (Huzur). So though Arabic has non secular sentiment hooked up to it English is taken into account to be extra essential because it has financial profit.
Comparability of English overseas languages like French, German, and Farsi:
French and German have change into very talked-about for financial causes in our nation. Studying these languages assist us to extend our risk to get a UN job. Studying French can also be useful for getting immigration to Canada. Additionally there are good services to be taught these languages in Dhaka College, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Lately, the English Institute of North South College has launched French course. However throughout the Muslim reign Farsi was the language of the Royal administration and regulation court docket in Bangladesh. At current, a scholar can attend Farsi course for one semester by simply paying tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Heart however there usually are not many college students who’re to be taught Farsi, French, and German. However, tons of of scholars every year seem for TOEFL and IELTS exams in English language.
From the above image it’s clear that the standing of English is far increased than overseas languages like German, French, and Farsi. We can’t deny the fact that if an individual is sweet at English then he can earn cash in any a part of Bangladesh but when an individual is sweet at French, German, or Farsi he has hardly any scope to earn cash by utilizing his abilities in these languages.
From the dialogue up to now there isn’t a doubt that English is the second language of Bangladesh however this actuality isn’t mirrored in our structure. Formally Bangladesh isn’t often called an ESL nation to the surface world. So Bangladesh needs to be declared as an ESL nation by the federal government with none delay. We be taught English not as a result of we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We be taught English from out of on daily basis necessity. If Bangladesh is asserted as an ESL nation and English language is given a transparent standing within the structure then it won’t solely mirror the fact but additionally it can assist us internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperately making an attempt to draw overseas buyers. Earlier than any firm involves Bangladesh for exploring the funding alternatives one of many key areas they might search for is the provision of pool of English graduates they usually additionally anticipate that the conventional employees can have fundamental understanding of English language. If we change into an ESL nation then these overseas corporations whereas looking out about Bangladesh will get assured in regards to the sturdy presence of English language on this nation.
The identical image is there about academic sector. Many Bangladeshi college students need to go to developed nations like USA, UK , Canada, and Australia for increased training. If Bangladesh is asserted as an ESL nation then these college students will likely be benefited as a result of then the Universities of these nations will get the concept English has particular significance in Bangladesh.
So I like to recommend to the federal government of Bangladesh that English needs to be declared because the second language of the nation by amending the structure.
Bangladesh is the one nation on the earth whose folks sacrificed their lives for the language. Now the historic language motion of 1952 is acknowledged internationally because the Worldwide Mom Language Day. It’s true that our persons are emotional about their language, Bangla. Nevertheless, it’s equally true that now our folks have change into determined about getting expert in English language. Consequently, there are greater than fifty non-public universities now in Bangladesh. If North South Provided BBA and Laptop Science programs in Bangla medium then they might not get even 10% of the variety of college students they’ve now. It’s now good time that we end the nice contradiction in regards to the language situation and declare Bangladesh as an ESL nation for our personal profit.
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