The French Fashion of Authorities
The French authorities has drastically modified over the course of 15 years. Previous to Napoleon’s rule, the French authorities was in a state of disarray. They suffered from a declining financial system and a sudden drought of assets. At the moment, France was nonetheless underneath the management of the Listing. Nonetheless, proper earlier than the flip of the 1800’s, Napoleon launched a coup to grab energy. With assistance from 5 administrators and his brother Lucien, Napoleon overthrew the Listing on the age of 30. The younger tactician took benefit of political and monetary issues of the nation at the moment, which severely weakened the Listing. On the similar time, it additionally helped that France had simply misplaced to Italy and Germany.
As soon as in energy, Napoleon established the Consulate Regime. Basically, this act established a dictatorship, which positioned Napoleon as first consul for the span of 10 years. In his new place, the federal government promised to supply new legal guidelines and order to the folks, in an effort to revitalize the state of the nation. In 1801, the federal government launched a concordat that returned the church to its civil standing. Whereas it declared Catholicism the primary faith of the French, it compelled the clergy to swear loyalty to Napoleon. Basically, this act solidified the facility of the federal government, because it was designed in favour of the state. Regardless of his monumental achievements, Napoleon nonetheless desired extra energy. In 1802, a plebiscite made Napoleon consul for all times. But Napoleon’s bid for absolute energy wouldn’t finish. In 1804, he dubbed himself Emperor of France, with full management over the newly centralized authorities.
At this level, Napoleon sought to increase his empire and the affect of the French authorities. He achieved this by assigning his kin and sibling because the rulers of lands he conquered. His actions gave method to the Napoleonic Administration, which strived to protect his energy. To be able to preserve his standing as an omnipotent particular person, the usage of propaganda was so as. Napoleon used secret brokers, arbitrary arrests, and executions to manage the general public opinion. He gained management over the press, which allowed him to fully management the media. The federal government exerted its energy to relinquish freedom of speech and political liberty from the folks. In doing so, anarchy could be prevented. But, regardless of this unfavourable affect, the administration additionally led to new reforms. The federal government supplied an orderly and environment friendly system for the folks to comply with. At this level, a extra centralized authorities was emphasised. Napoleon appointed prefects to manage main governing departments. Mixed, this new system centralized Authorities authority in Paris. These consultant establishments created the phantasm of a democracy, when in reality, the folks had no actual energy.
One of many best reforms led to by the Authorities was the Napoleonic Code. This algorithm tried to unify the authorized system. Napoleon himself appointed a council of authorized specialists to create a brand new civil code, in a bid to pacify the general public outbursts that plagued France for therefore lengthy. This code introduced equality to the residents earlier than the regulation. Employment could be primarily based on capacity fairly than delivery, whereas folks had been free to pursue the profession of their selection. Furthermore, residents had been granted non secular freedom. In a manner, the federal government tried to empower the folks, whereas nonetheless preserving their unchallenged authority and energy.
In 1814, Napoleon was defeated by the allies and compelled into exile. In his place, Louis the XVIII took the throne. This marked the return of an absolute monarchy that changed the dictatorship beforehand insulated by Napoleon. Regardless of this sudden change, sure ideas of the Napoleonic authorities had been stored. The constitution of 1814 was basically an overhaul of the Napoleonic code, which nonetheless contained the identical ideas. Louis established a parliamentary authorities, whereas additionally offering the general public with an unbiased judicial system. With the reinvestigation of an absolute monarchy, Louis the XVIII was cautious to keep away from the paths of his predecessors. On this sense, he didn’t try and rule as an absolute monarch, however as a patron that accepted the need and wishes of the folks.
It’s troublesome to precisely pinpoint the fashion of the French authorities within the 1800’s. This nation’s ruling system is thought for present process sporadic adjustments and overhauls in the midst of a pair hundred years. Beneath the management of Napoleon, this authorities tried to grab absolute energy and full management of the folks. That is evident by its makes an attempt to silence the unfavourable opinions of the general public via unsavoury means, to be able to command public expression. But, on the similar time, the federal government did grant the folks higher types of social liberty within the Napoleonic Code.
In the long run, the Napoleonic authorities helps a contradictory existence, in that one facet strives to liberate the folks, whereas the one other facet wishes absolute energy (the facility to have the ultimate phrase in working the nation). As for the federal government in 1815, it was merely an absolutist monarchy. It differed barely from earlier monarchies, in that Louis the XVIII sought to implement Napoleonic reforms that introduced extra freedom to the folks.
The Financial system
Previous to the Napoleonic Empire, the French financial system suffered from a long time of financial distress. With the demise of Louis XIV in 1715, the positive aspects of the Solar King’s reign would quickly be destroyed by the Louis XIV’s inept heirs. For the subsequent half century, the French financial system boomed, supported by elevated commerce and merchandise from the West. Higher know-how allowed merchandise to be moved faster from manufacturing to market. Nonetheless, France’s financial downfall lay with the large uneducated inhabitants of the third property. Whereas the intellectuals of France honed their abilities in math, science, and the humanities, the commoners suffered vastly. Because the inhabitants grew to round 25 million, the woes of a largely uneducated folks would quickly be seen within the French financial system.
Within the second half of the 18th century, the financial positive aspects of the primary half had been rapidly erased by the struggling of the third property. The rising French inhabitants created a widespread meals scarcity as a result of the farmers may now not produce sufficient for your complete inhabitants. The failure of the inept authorities to correctly plan accordingly to the elevated inhabitants could be their downfall. Moreover, the largely uneducated third property would lose in competitors with British made items. An instance is British textiles, which had been of upper high quality and cheaper than French textiles. Now not in a position to compete with British merchandise, large unemployment joined starvation within the many social woes for the third property. By now, the French financial system was close to breaking level. Shedding the Seven Years’ Battle to the British price the French its territories in North America and investing closely within the American Revolution put the financial system in a monetary disaster. The federal government had no selection however to additional tax the one individuals who could possibly be taxed, the Third Property. So as to add insult to harm, unlucky climate destroyed crops in 1788, adopted by a harsh winter. Hungry, chilly, and broke from the heavy tax burden, the folks rioted.
The revolution introduced in several people in energy who struggled to get better the French financial system from the state that it was in. The Nationwide Constituent Meeting abolished feudalism, nationalized and taxed the church, however was too busy with different affairs to concentrate on financial reform. The Nationwide Conference faired a bit higher economically by setting value limits on meals enabling folks to feed themselves at an affordable value. The Committee of Public Security enforced this by executing those that bought meals on the black market, however quickly no person may afford to even produce meals. The Listing acknowledged that the financial system couldn’t be fastened with out conflict and relied on French navy success to stimulate the financial system. Nonetheless the price of counting on navy success led to a coup d’tat and Napoleon took energy.
The Napoleonic Period ushered in hope for French financial restoration. By means of his quite a few navy victories, Napoleon looted wherever he received and introduced again large wealth to France. In 1800, Napoleon established the Financial institution of France in an effort to stabilize the financial system. Napoleon additionally didn’t need the inflow of overseas wealth to trigger large inflation in France. The Financial institution of France was a significant factor in stabilizing the French financial system as a result of it centralized the French financial system. The financial institution would regulate forex to forestall inflation by controlling money movement within the French financial system. The Financial institution of France additionally promoted financial improvement with low curiosity loans, grant cash, and tax rebates.
Napoleon’s tax reform additionally performed an enormous function in stabilizing the French financial system. He assigned the duty of amassing taxes to skilled authorities workers and abolished all tax exemptions. Napoleon additionally positioned taxes on a plethora of products to boost income. Napoleon was additionally a giant supporter of training. He acknowledged that almost all of the French had been uneducated or very poorly educated so he created lycees (colleges) to coach males. Napoleon stated:
Of all our establishments public training is a very powerful. Every part depends upon it, the current and the longer term. It’s important that the morals and political concepts of the technology which is now rising up ought to now not be dependent upon the information of the day or the circumstances of the second. Above all we should safe unity: we should be capable of forged an entire technology in the identical mould.
The elevated availability of training to the center class would show a precious funding, producing the intense minds of the longer term.
Napoleon’s best financial coverage was the Continental System which eradicated Britain from competing with decrease high quality, and dearer French items. The Continental System was enforced by putting a big scale commerce embargo upon all British items for continental Europe. International locations in Europe had been now compelled to purchase French items, which stimulated the French financial system, however harm the economies of each different nation. Any nation that didn’t adjust to the Continental System was threatened with navy motion.
Though the Napoleonic Period was an enormous enchancment on the years of insufficient French financial coverage, the Napoleonic financial system was largely primarily based on the navy. The Financial institution of France was created due to Napoleon’s quite a few navy victories in addition to the training system. The continental system which compelled different nations to commerce with France was enforced by the French navy. The issue with such a navy backed financial system is that it’s not totally self sustaining and the true issues are rapidly revealed ought to the navy fail. Napoleon’s financial technique was basically to speculate into the French financial system with cash he took from different nations. Consequently, France boomed, however sadly for Napoleon, Britain retained its naval superiority and the true loser within the Continental System was France as a result of French ships had been underneath menace of being sunk by the British Navy. In conclusion, Napoleon’s financial coverage was the one hope for a rustic torn by years of revolution.
The French Navy
The usual weapon of the French infantry was the musket with delayed and restricted hearth energy. Every musket was geared up with a bayonet. The Napoleonic military utilized the advantages of the superior weapons of the instances and thus gave extra mobility to its artillery. So, the flexibility of its weapons, the agility of its infantry, backed up by its well-trained cavalry, gave the French military a singular edge in a majority of its battles.
The French navy technique referred to as for 2 main campaigns. One military was to maneuver in a northeasterly course, and the opposite was to advance into Italy in opposition to Sardinia and Austria. This latter marketing campaign was entrusted to Bonaparte. In a collection of good maneuvers via the Alps into Italy, he swept away the armies to the Sardinians and the Austrians. By the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, France was given the Ionian Islands and the Austrian Netherlands. As partial compensation for the lack of the Netherlands, Austria was given the Venetian Republic, however solely on promising to remain out of different elements of Italy. Each Austria and Sardinia had been thus faraway from the battle and solely Nice Britain remained to oppose France.
Members of the Listing realized the hazard of their place in having a navy hero in Paris. Bonaparte himself favored an Egyptian marketing campaign as a method of hanging at England and his wished had been adopted. Bonaparte’s troopers received new laurels within the shadows of the pyramids and suffered horrible hardships on an unsuccessful Syrian marketing campaign. However Lord Nelson defeated the French fleet and maintained the supremacy of English sea energy within the Mediterranean. Essentially the most vital accomplishments of the Egyptian marketing campaign had been scientific fairly than navy.
Bonaparte was nicely conscious that his Egyptian journey was a navy failure; however the French folks had been keen to imagine that their outstanding younger commander had received new honors for the republic. Nice Britain Austria and Russia made an alliance through which the British statesman, William Pitt, was an essential chief. Armies of the coalition received victories over French troops, and in France itself there was home chaos.
French’s overseas enemies had been alarmed by the rising energy of Napoleon Bonaparte. The imperial designs of the little despot grew to become a matter of worldwide concern. England induced Austria and Russia to affix a brand new coalition of powers to cut back the growing energy of France. In 1803, he had bought Louisiana, his best American possession to the US to boost cash for the approaching conflict. Though Bonaparte started to construct a navy, he grew to become satisfied of the impossibility of carrying the conflict to the British Isles, so he attacked England’s continental allies.
In lower than six months his citizen military and Bavarian allies captured the Austrian capital and dealt the mixed Austrian and Russian armies a crushing defeat at Austerlitz. He subsequent turned on Prussia, one other of the allies, and drove its military from the sphere at Jena and Auerstadt on October 14, 1806. Of the continental members of the coalition, solely Russia remained to be humbled.
The march from the Prussian battlefields towards Russia was impeded solely at Friedland, the place the French military signally defeated a Russian military supported by Prussians. Czar Alexander of Russia didn’t danger additional defeat however agreed to satisfy Napoleon to signal the Treaty of Tilsit. Greater than a peace was concluded, since Alexander quickly appeared as an ally of France and an empire builder in his personal proper. Sweden, regardless of feeble support from England, loses Finland to the Czar in 1809.
Unable to deal with England straight, France devised an oblique conflict on Britain. The French navy, which had been reconditioned and augmented, misplaced its effectiveness within the battle of Trafalgar in October, 1805, and so in a single stroke, Napoleon’s chief weapon in opposition to England was taken from him. His plan of oblique conflict on Britain was to strike at her commerce with continental Europe. Bonaparte closed all of its ports to British items, hoping to starve the British folks. Additional decrees, after 1806, even allowed confiscation of English items discovered on the continent. England, unable to assault Napoleon on the continent, issued counter decrees prohibiting the world’s commerce with France, and ordering the seizure of vessels that complied with French decrees.
The French invasion of Europe was at first seen by the European peoples as liberation from the tyranny of their very own monarchs. All over the place the Napoleonic military was welcomed because the herald of recent day.
Napoleon’s coverage was to maintain his topic states so weakened that none may rise in opposition to him. Teams of smaller states, such because the Confederation of the Rhine, had been banded collectively to steadiness the facility of Austria and Prussia. Russia was the one continental energy that didn’t really feel the power of the Napoleon for Europe. The Czar escaped its rigors as a result of he had, by likelihood, grow to be the ally of the grasp. For a short while Portugal, too, held out in opposition to the brand new order. When Portugal and Spain fell, all continental Europe was within the palms of Napoleon.
Though the conquests of Europe had been first understood by European peoples as an extension of Liberty, and Equality the beliefs of the French Revolution, it was not lengthy earlier than they felt the tyranny of Napoleon’s rule. Within the workings of the “continental system,” which has already been described, they discovered subjected to poverty as a result of Napoleon needed to assault England. His quite a few calls for for troopers to fill the ranks of many armies depleted the inhabitants and crammed virtually continental household with the sorrow of demise.
French armies marched up and down the Europe, however the spirit of revolt in opposition to Napoleon’s despotism couldn’t be suppressed. His Russian ally, the czar additionally started to slide out of his place as a buddy of France. Russia was now not cooperating with France by 1810. Napoleon realized that he wanted to fix the scenario.
He rapidly chastised the Italian states and laid the plans for a Russian marketing campaign. First, he secured a nominal Austrian alliance by marrying an Austrian princess. Subsequent he collected the most important military Europe had ever seen and marched it towards Russia. One-half million males had been within the Military that entered Russia to seek out burned villages and a denuded nation facet. The Russians had evacuated their cities, set them afire, and sought the protection of the hinterland. Napoleon discovered Moscow a mass of ruins. There the military camped in the midst of desolation and the swirling snows of a Moscow winter awaiting the give up of the enemy who wouldn’t battle with France.
Napoleon may need been in a position to defeat the Russians if they’d fought; however, because it was, his solely enemies had been chilly, starvation, illness, and the maddening raids of elusive Cossack warriors. Within the late days of the 12 months 1812 Napoleon started an inevitable retreat. Few of the half-million troopers died. Napoleon’s energy decreased and it was the start of the highway to the Elba and to Waterloo.
The European nations didn’t stay idle after they noticed France so critically weakened. Prussia, notably, was able to prepared the ground in a common European revolt. The sooner victories of Napoleon’s armies, composed of residents fired with nationalistic beliefs, taught Prussia that the disinterested skilled armies had been out of date. Prussian navy leaders educated a nationwide military regardless of the varied restrictions. As within the case of the military, different nationwide establishments had been introduced updated and to the height of effectivity. Prussia joined Russia in a conflict on Napoleon in March, 1813. Different European states had been getting ready to affix the main powers.
Napoleon struck at Prussia instantly, however, whereas profitable battles, was unable to demoralize his enemies. At this juncture Austria, wavering for a time to see which facet would win, selected to danger her lot with that of the allied powers. For the primary time within the years of conflict in opposition to Napoleon, the enemies had been united in each spirit and goal. Collectively they struck at Napoleon’s drained military and administered a crushing defeat at Leipzig. Methodically, relentlessly, the adopted him into the guts of France.
Napoleon’s military measurement at Leipzig was a couple of complete of 122,000 males at Leipzig with one other 53, 000 coming behind. The Battle of Leipzig occurred throughout October sixteenth to 18th in 1813. Napoleon Bonaparte tried to seize the capital of Berlin with a number of makes an attempt, however he positioned his military west of the River Elbe on September twenty fourth 1813. Napoleon’s plan was to make the most of Leipzig as his command base. Proper after he withdrew his military, the mixed allied forces had been marching in direction of Leipzig. Prince Karl von Schwarzenberg was the commander of the Austrian Pressure, and so they approached from Dresdon to the south of Leipzig. The Prussian power was underneath the command of Common Blucher from Wartenburg the place he arrived on the third October 1813. The command of the Swedish Prince Jean Bermadotte was accountable for the third Pressure; shifting in direction of the North of Leipzig along with his military.
The Battle of Leipzig started on October sixteenth, 1813 after Russian’s first assault underneath the management of Common Mikhail Barday de Tolly. The scale of Russian military was roughly 78,000 couldn’t assault southern French defenses. On the evening time, Napoleon reorganized the place of his military after two assaults. On October seventeenth, 1813 Napoleon was preventing along with his full military as his different a part of his military managed to withdraw into Leipzig. The allies surrounded the world round Leipzig on the 18th, 1813, and the allies gathered as their full power a complete variety of 355,000 males made a large assault on French military. The casualties of the French males had been 38, 000 killed, and about 30,000 had been taken as prisoners. The Allies misplaced about 52, 000, additionally, this battle is known as the Battle of the Nations. After Leipzig, the French military paled compared to the coalition forces that might elevate 1 million males east of the Rhine alone. The state of the military was in disarray, particularly after years of conflict. Thus, the Battle of Leipzig established the coalition because the dominant power in Continental Europe, erasing the little navy functionality the French had.
Function throughout the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
The French Revolution
The initiation of the French Revolution was due solely to France when it comes to its financial and sophistication system. One of many causes was that the folks didn’t favor absolute monarchy as a result of not everybody within the French society felt a way of equality. The nobles and the clergy had privileges within the feudal system whereas the decrease courses had been those struggling. The debt that France owed worsened the financial state of France and burdened the decrease courses with greater taxations. The upper courses had been a minority group and subsequently a majority of the inhabitants sought freedom and equality and needed enlightenment. They attacked the federal government, needed freedom of speech and challenged the Catholic Church and the Aristocracy and hundreds of nobles and excessive clergy had been finally killed throughout the Terror. This chaos made Louis depending on assistance from the Nationwide Meeting.
The Nationwide Meeting wrote a structure in 1791. The primary act was to demolish seigniorial obligations and this included taxes or labor providers supplied by the decrease class to the higher class. The Meeting additionally wrote a doc, which demonstrated Enlightenment referred to as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. This was gave folks a way of freedom and an absence of oppression. The folks had been allowed to be part of the political system by permitting residents to vote.
When Louis XVI was discovered making an attempt to flee France, the Girondins believed in structure monarchy whereas the Jacobins didn’t need a king. The Declaration of Pillnitz demanded that Louis XVI to be returned to throne. The Nationwide Conference nonetheless determined to haven’t any monarchy and needed France to be a republic. In January 1793, Louis XVI was executed for treason. After a poorly fought conflict in opposition to Austria and Prussia, the residents had been enraged and overthrew the Girondin managed Nationwide Conference. Maximilien Robespierre who led the overthrow of the Girodins was now in management. After the Reign of Terror in 1793-1794 the place 15 000 folks was executed, Robespierre himself was executed. This was the interval of Thermidorean response through which the federal government was reconstructing itself. Out of necessity, the Listing was compelled to make use of Napoleon’s victories to distract the general public from the financial woes. On account of his elevated recognition, Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup in 1799 and declared himself “first consul”, thus ending the French Revolution.
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon supplied the folks of France with stability after years of chaos. He launched Code Napoleon in 1804, a set of legal guidelines which ensured equality for all male residents no matter class. It was much like the ideas of 1789 as a result of he believed in freedom and equality and it’s a combination of previous and new concepts.
In 1802, Napoleon acknowledged his need for conquest and after his battle with England: conflict begun. Britain shaped an alliance with Austria and Russia upon menace of invasion from the French Military and Navy. In 1805 on the Battle of Trafalgar, the vast majority of the French Navy was destroyed and the invasion of England was unsuccessful. Napoleon then tried one other tactic, which is the Continental System by not permitting English exports into France and destroying their industries. This plan didn’t work since England had different buying and selling companions and held naval superiority and he was once more unsuccessful.
The conflict in opposition to Russia began in 1811 when Napoleon needed an unbiased Polish state on Russia’s borders whereas the Czar refused. He invaded Russia with about 600,000 males nonetheless Russia had a big military as nicely. The Russians retreated each time Napoleon tried to assault them. The conflict took longer than Napoleon anticipated and so they had a restricted quantity of assets. The Russians used the scorched-earth technique the place they burned every part together with crops so Napoleon’s military would haven’t any assets to stay off of. The military died from starvation, the chilly and exhaustion and he retreated. In the long run his military was principally destroyed and solely 50 000 troopers remained.
The conflict in opposition to Spain began when Napoleon needed to dethrone the present King and change him along with his brother Joseph. The outrage by the Spanish King began the Peninsular Battle. The conflict lasted six years, however Napoleon was unsuccessful.
Austria, Russia, Prussia and Nice Britain all signed a negotiation to battle in opposition to Napoleon. The Minister Talleyrand took management of the federal government and needed to make Louis XVII the king. Napoleon surrendered and signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau and was exiled to Elba in the meanwhile. The treaty supplied him 2 million Francs a 12 months and allowed him to maintain his emperor title. With the assistance of the Congress of Vienna, France was restored and so they made certain nobody would be capable of achieve an excessive amount of energy.
Historic International Relations of France
Pre Napoleonic period International Relations
Relations with the Austro-Hungarian Empire
France had been in battle with Austro- Hungary for a number of years earlier than the Napoleonic wars had been even began. The supply of battle throughout the publish monarch period of France was additionally the explanation for peaceable relations throughout the years earlier than the revolution. The final French monarch earlier than the French revolution had an Austrian spouse, this served very nicely in stopping battle between the 2 powers. The efforts carried out to ascertain France as an empire began the battle between them and intensified it at each stage.
Relations with Nice Britain
France had a protracted historical past of battle with Britain that spanned each Europe and the brand new world. Conflicts between Britain and France within the 100 years alone earlier than the Napoleonic wars included the Battle of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the Seven Years’ Battle (1756-63) and the Battle of the American Revolution (1775-83). These wars helped set stage for the Napoleonic wars as they harm the financial system and France’s function within the American Revolution introduced again revolutionary concepts.
Relations with Spain
The Spanish monarchy was carefully associated to the French monarchy, because it was a bourbon home. Within the years main as much as the French revolution, their overseas relations had been pretty heat. Earlier than there was a Bourbon monarch ruling Spain, it was dominated the rival Hapsburgs, this usually resulted in lots of conflicts between them.
Relations with Prussia
The relations between France and Prussia have been principally hostile with uncommon opportunistic alliances between them. The conflict of Spanish succession was fought between them with leading to France placing considered one of its monarchs because the Spanish king. The rivalry between the 2 powers has a protracted historical past courting again to the Bourbon Hapsburg rivalries, with Prussia usually siding with Hapsburgs.
Napoleonic period overseas relations
Relations with the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austria was one of many first nations to pursue conflict in opposition to the French republic and was the primary nation to be attacked by the republican French military. The supply of the battle was associated to the queen’s relation to Austria and its royalty, coupled by the affect of the fleeing French the Aristocracy. The one time that Austria sided with Napoleonic France was when napoleon conquered Austria and married considered one of its princesses; it later betrayed France because it was fleeing from a failed Russian marketing campaign although.
Relations with Nice Britain
The emergence of Napoleonic France and its therapy of their king had Prompted Britain to battle many successive wars in Europe and all over the world underneath a number of coalitions till the defeat and exile of Napoleon at waterloo. The 2 powers waged many wars in opposition to each other outdoors of their common chilly conflict.
Relations with Spain
Spain was a part of the primary coalition within the Napoleonic wars however later discovered itself to be an unwilling ally of France solely then ending up being in a coalition that defeats France. The Spanish monarchy was carefully associated to the deposed French monarchy and felt extraordinarily unsympathetic in direction of napoleon and republican France.
Relations with Prussia
Prussia sided with the coalitions for many of the Napoleonic wars and was considered one of powers that gained essentially the most from the defeat of napoleon. The facet that it selected was usually primarily based on the quantity of alternative that the facility noticed for fulfillment and enlargement. Total Prussia grew in measurement and energy all through the Napoleonic wars and rivalry continued between the 2 powers of the continent of Europe.
Asprey, Robert B. The Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: Fundamental, 2001. Print.
Markham, J. David. “The Revolution, Napoleon, and Training.” The Napoleon Collection. Worldwide Napoleonic Society, 2010. Internet. 03 Apr. 2011. http://www.napoleon-series.org/analysis/society/c_education.html.